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To ensure that quality education is provided to all following steps are needed:
1.All the clauses 30.1 ,30,2,30,3,30.4,30.7,30.8,30.9 from the attached file 301.pdf have been included in this Draft .
SOURCE of 301.pdf : http://www.righttorecall.info/301.pdf
2. All schools like colleges should be assessed continuously by NAACS (NATIONAL ASSESSMENT AND ACCREDIATION COUNCIL FOR SCHOOLS) like dedicated institutions.
3. All boards (both all India and state) should come under a single national level board arbitrarily named "National Board for Secondary Education in India (NBSEI)" which is just like Universities lending their affiliation to various colleges. There should only be a single board in the country which will control all other boards that earlier existed.
All boards currently present in India should ask for affiliation from NBSEI (National Board for Secondary Education in India) within 3 months of its creation by registering their board under NBSEI (National Board for Secondary Education in India) .This should be done in order to ensure equity to students from different boards.
This board National Board for Secondary Education in India (NBSEI) will set same question papers for all students in the country and will also decide the marking scheme so that all students are marked in the same way. This board will decide the common syllabi for all subjects to be taught at schools.
3.1 A separate “Education Deposit Fund” should be made where all the money the government gets from schools & other sources for education will be stored.
3.2 REGISTRATION of all schools and boards spread all over India
REGISTRATION FEE has to be paid by schools and boards and it can charge students for this fee.
All boards currently present in India should ask for affiliation from NBSEI (National Board for Secondary Education in India) within 3 months of its creation by registering their board under NBSEI (National Board for Secondary Education in India) by paying Rs 500 per school(Rs 100 for government boards) per year affiliated under them. Now all schools in India are automatically affiliated by NBSEI (National Board for Secondary Education in India) .
So every year the private urban and town schools needs to pay Rs 500 per student per year for continual affiliation from NBSEI (National Board for Secondary Education in India) while rural schools only needs to pay Rs 10 per student per annum.
The government run schools needs to pay Rs 100 per student per annum.
The rates have been fixed like these because affordable private schools in India charge Annual tuition fees ranging between Rs 36,000 to Rs 60,000,while a Government schools charges Annual tuition fees ranges between Rs 12,000 to Rs. 25,000.
There are more than 10,000 CBSE schools in India , 1700 ICSE Schools in India, 20,000(approx) state government schools in India.
So the cost of affiliation per year for CBSE = Rs 100* 10,000 = Rs 10lakhs.
The cost of affiliation per year for ICSE = Rs 500* 1700 = Rs 8.5 lakhs
The cost of affiliation per year for state boards = Rs 100* 20,000 = Rs 20 lakhs.
Total cost that boards have to bear for affiliation = Rs 38.5 lakhs per year.
There are only 30 million(3crore) secondary school children in India out of which only 6.2 million(62 lakh) students study in private schools and the 0.8 million (8lakhs) study in rural schools and the rest 23 million (2.3 crore)students study in government schools
Private urban school needs to pay = Rs 500* 62,00,000
= Rs 310 crores per annum.
Government urban school needs to pay = Rs 100* 2, 30, 00,000
= Rs 230 crores per annum.
Rural school needs to pay = Rs 10* 8,00,000
= Rs 80 lakhs per annum.
Total amount received from schools in form of registration fee = Rs 540.8crores.
Total amount generated from schools and boards only from “REGISTRATION “ = 540.8 crores + 88.5 lakhs = 541 crores and 68.5 lakhs.
4. Cost of assessing per school will be only Rs.50 per student per year (Rs 20 per student per year for schools in rural areas).
Assessment of schools should be made mandatory and schools have to bear the cost of assessment.
Schools can only charge Rs.25 from urban school children and Rs 5 from rural school children for assessment of schools.
Cost of assessing urban schools = Rs 50* 2, 92, 00,000
=Rs 146 crores per year
Cost of assessing rural schools = Rs 20* 8, 00,000
=Rs 1.6 crores per year
Total amount generated from schools for assessment = Rs 147.6 crores per year
School assessed should be graded in the following format:
FIVE STAR SCHOOL – THE BEST SCHOOL (Both Academically and Non-academically)
FOUR STAR SCHOOL –THE BEST SCHOOL (Academically)
THREE STAR SCHOOL - THE BEST SCHOOL ( Co-Academic Activities)
TWO STAR SCHOOL – THE BEST SCHOOL (Impact on Society)
ONE STAR SCHOOL – THE BEST SCHOOL (Faculty wise)
A+ - EXCELLENT
A - VERY GOOD
B+ - GOOD
C+ - SATISFACTORY
C - POOR
D - UNSATISFACTORY
Now what should be done once the grading is done is that the those schools falling under category “C” and ” D “ should be served a maximum of 2 warnings per year and if even after the warnings schools fail to improve they should face severe punishment like DE-affiliation along with fine of Rs 10000 per student(Rs 100 per student in rural areas) . Star schools and schools with grades A+ would be rewarded with cash. This will ensure schools provide quality education. Rural schools who fall under poor and unsatisfactory category will be dealt leniently. Rural schools will be given five warnings with gap of six months between warnings.
5. Education Tax should be included along with Income Tax whose interest rates should be :
Less than Taxable Income = 0.5% per annum
Rs 1,80,001 – Rs 5,00,000 = 1% per annum
Rs 5,00,001 – Rs 8,00,000 = 2% per annum
Rs 8,00,001 upwards = 3% per annum
The amount of money generated from Education Tax wiil go to “Education Deposit Fund”.
Education Tax to be deducted along with Income Tax.
Education Tax fixed at rate 1% will be included within VAT(Value Added Tax). VAT is the indirect tax on the consumption of the goods, paid by its original producers upon the change in goods or upon the transfer of the goods to its ultimate consumers. It is based on the value of the goods, added by the transferor. It is the tax in relation to the difference of the value added by the transferor and not just a profit
6. All students whose annual family income is less than INR 45,000 should be allowed to purchase Application forms for competitive exams & Colleges/Government Schools Admission form free of cost be. This will ensure that all poor and needy meritorious students can have access to education.
All applicants who buy the Application Forms need to pay extra Rs.10 which should be included in the Application Fee for the funding of forms for poor and needy meritorious students. Banks distributing forms cannot charge poor and needy meritorious students for the Application Forms.
Applicants who fail to clear the eligibility criteria for the competitive exams shall be allowed to sit for the competitive exam after paying a fine of Rs 1000 along with fees of both test(screening and main). 50% of this money will go to the “Education Deposit Fund” and the rest 50% goes to the institute. These applicants will have to appear for screening test before sitting for the main examination.
Funds for Application forms of poor and needy meritorious to be provided from “Education Deposit Fund”.
7.Maximum fees to be charged by a private educational institute should be fixed by the government. Impediments in the way of setting up for-profit private schools/colleges should be removed. Today, only a charitable trust can set up educational institutions. Therefore, honest entrepreneurs interested in making profits will not get involved in spending their time and setting up quality educational institutions. The result is that only criminals who plunder money illegally in the name of "charitable trusts" get involved in providing education, and make money through capitation fees. To stop this, the government should allow for for-profit companies to set up educational institutions. This move will result in considerable capital flowing into the education sector. These colleges so set up will still come under the purview of the education ministries around the country, and so the government can still regulate the fees charged for providing the education. This is akin to regulating the distribution of power in Mumbai and Delhi. The government regulator only decides the upper limit cost per unit of power. Similar regulation now exists in telecom. Therefore it is perfectly possible to bring about the same in education as well. Any hike in fees should at first be reported to government and if the government permits then only fees could be hiked. Violation of this law will lead to severe punishment like Fines & DE-affiliation.
8. Student: Teacher ratio law :-
1:20 – EXCELLENT
1:25 - VERY GOOD
1:30 - GOOD
1:35 - SATISFACTORY
1:40 - POOR
1:45 - UNSATISFACTORY
Now what should be done is that the those schools falling under categories "POOR OR UNSATISFACTORY" should be served a maximum of 2 warnings per academic year and if even after the warnings schools fail to improve they should be DE-affiliated and schools with “EXCELLENT” Student :Teacher ratio should be rewarded. This will ensure quality in education.
9. 25% Reservation of seats for poor in all private schools should be made mandatory and violation of the law will lead to severe punishment.
10. Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education should be implemented properly . It ensures every child have Right to Free and Compulsory Education till age 14,but what happens after that.
11. Government should provide full scholarships to the needy and the poor meritorious students till the age of 18.The child who doesn't get the scholarship can opt for special educational loan(Level 1) which he/she needs to re-pay back 3 years after getting job .Government should also set up more government schools for the needy and the poor ones.
12.After a needy and poor child has finished his 12th and gets admission to any college or institute only on basis of merit , government should provide him/her with special educational loan(Level 2) which he/she needs to re-pay back 5 years after getting job.
13.The government must introduce Special educational loan in all banks--
a. What is Special educational loan (Level 1 &2)?
Ans : Level 1 loan is only for poor and needy Students perusing Education in schools and Level 2 is only for poor and needy Students perusing Higher Education.(after class 12)
b. How much Loan he/she can get under Special educational loan (Level 1)?
Ans: Students can borrow up to Rs 4 lakh without providing any security.
c. What is the Interest rate charged for Special educational loan (Level 1)?
d. How much Loan he/she can get under Special educational loan (Level 2)?
Ans: For Studies in India , Students can borrow up to Rs 10 lakh and for Studies in Abroad, Students can borrow up to Rs 20 lakh.
e. What is the Interest rate charged for Special educational loan (Level 2)?
Ans: - 2% per annum in India and 8% per annum outside India.
f. Repayment of Special educational loan -
Level 1- Course period + 6 years or 3 years after getting job, whichever is earlier.
Level 2 - Course period + 6 years or 3 years after getting job, whichever is earlier.
14. Caste based reservation should be replaced by Annual Family Income based reservation.
Annual Family Income Based Reservation is as follows:
less than INR 30, OOO per annum - 10% seat reservation.
less than INR 60, OOO per annum but more than INR 30,OOO per annum --------------------------------- 7% seat reservation.
less than INR 1, 00, OOO per annum but more than INR 60,OOO per annum----------------------------4% seat reservation.
less than INR 2,50,OOO per annum but more than INR 1,00,OOO per annum-----------------------------3% seat reservation.
If any seats from any category remains unfilled it will be added to the next category and even if seats remain unfilled it will be added to the General category.
PROCEDURE FOR REGISTRATION FOR Annual Family Income Based Reservation (AFIBR)
• For the purpose of determining the annual Income from all sources of Parents / Guardians of students an officer of the State Government in the rank of Block Development Officer or above in the districts / their equivalent counterparts (Group – A Officer) elsewhere will be competent to issue Income Certificate. INCOME CERTIFICATE SHOULD ALSO BE ISSUED IN THE FORM OF AFFIDAVIT.
MODEL PROFORMA FOR INCOME CERTIFICATE
(To be given by any Govt. Officer not below the rank of Jt. B.D.O./Executive Officer in case of Municipality/Deputy Commissioner of Corporation in case of Non-salaried
I Certify to the best of my knowledge that Shri/Kumari/Smt. _______________
son/daughter/wife of Sri _____________________ resident of Village / Town :
________________ P.S. ______________________________District : __________________ is
known to me for ___________________ (Years/Months).
His/Her father/ Guardian/husband is a permanent resident of Village / town
____________________ P.S. ______________________ District ___________________ State
The total annual family income from all sources of both the
parents/Guardian/Husband/Student for the year 2010-2011 is Rs. ________________ .
Place : ______________________________
Name (in Block Letters)
Full Address :
MODEL FORM OF DECLARATION OF INCOME IN THE FORM OF AFFIDAVIT
(To be given by the Parents/Guardians in case of both salaried/non-salaried income)
Whereas my son/daughter/dependent Shri/Kumari/Smt. _____________________________
a student of __________________________________ college/school has applied for grant of
West Bengal Govt. Merit-cum-Means Scholarship, I, Shri ____________________________ son
of Shri _______________________________________(Address)
________________________________ do hereby declare that my total annual family income from
all sources in the preceeding year ending 31st March, 2011 is Rs.__________ (in words
also)______________________________________). I make myself personally responsible for the accuracy of the facts and figures furnished. I further declare that in the event of the particulars given in this declaration being found to be false I shall refund the whole amount of the scholarship paid to the said _______________________________________ (Name of Student) and the Government decision whether the declaration of particulars is false shall be final and binding on me.
Place : _________________
Date : ___________________________
(Signature in full)
Affirmed /Sworn before me Identified by
Signature of Notary Public/Ist Class Magistrate
• The Reservation Category Certificate should be obtained from BDO's (Block Development Officer) Office after showing him/her the Income Certificate issued by an officer of the State Government in the rank of Block Development Officer or above in the districts / their equivalent counterparts (Group – A Officer) and VERIFIED by DEO(District Education Officer).
• If any student is willing to be considered for the reservation then he/she needs to apply for reservation by purchasing the Reservation Form which is distributed along with the Application Form of the competitive examination then He/she should submit the following documents along with the filled up Application Form :
1. Original Income Certificate issued by an officer of the State Government in the rank of Block Development Officer or above in the districts / their equivalent counterparts (Group – A Officer)
2. Original Reservation Category Certificate obtained from BDO's (Block Development Officer) Office and VERIFIED by DEO(District Education Officer).
3. Attested Xerox copy of Domicile Certificate
4. Attested Xerox copies of Voter Id cards of his/her Family Members
5. Attested Xerox copies of PAN cards of his/her Family Members
6. Attested Xerox copies of Ration cards of his/her Family Members(if possible)
7. Attested Xerox copies of Employer’s Identity Cards of his/her Family Members
8. Attested Xerox copies of Income Tax his/her Family Members
9. Details of Bank Account Should be provided and Attested Xerox Copies of all documents .
10. Attested Xerox copy of Income Certificate
11. Attested Xerox copy of Reservation Category Certificate
12. Attested Xerox copy of INCOME CERTIFICATE ISSUED IN THE FORM OF AFFIDAVIT.
• INSTRUCTION TO THE INSTITUTES :
1. The INSTITUTES must create a dedicated website meant only for REGISTRATION FOR Annual Family Income Based Reservation (AFIBR).
2. After DEO(District Education Officer) has uploaded all the required documents the institute should generate a UNIQUE REGISTRATION CODE for the candidate after Registration is completed.
3. The Institute should provide separate Reservation form for these candidates along with the Application Form.
4. The Institute must verify the validity of all the documents it receives from the candidate
• INSTRUCTION TO DEO(DISTRICT EDUCATION OFFICER :
1. All documents should be attested by DEO(District Education Officer) and DEO should scan the Documents and upload all above mentioned the documents to the institute’s website for REGISTRATION FOR Annual Family Income Based Reservation (AFIBR)
2. After mailing all the documents DEO should register the name of the candidate in the institute’s website meant only for REGISTRATION FOR Annual Family Income Based Reservation (AFIBR) .
3. DEO (District Education Officer) now should download and print out the REGISTRATION Form which will contain the candidate’s UNIQUE REGISTRATION CODE and hand over the Downloaded REGISTRATION FORM to the candidate
• INSTRUCTION TO THE CANDIDATE
1. The candidate must collect the Reservation Form along with the Application Form and fill it up
2. The candidate now should attach all the above mentioned 11 documents with the Reservation Form and Application Form
3. The candidate should also attach the Downloaded REGISTRATION FORM along with the above mentioned 12 documents, Reservation Form and Application Form and then submit.
Current reservation: 15% quota for SC, 7.5% for ST and 27% quota for OBCs. A total of 49.5% seats are reserved.
Under "Annual Family Income based reservation" Total seat reserved is 24% which is less than half of the current reservation
In Present situation ,The country has 22 crore student population, of which only 1.4 crore goes to colleges.
If all the above proposals is formulated in a bill by our Education Minister and passed in Parliament it will not only ensure quality in education but also more and more students will be pursuing higher education. It will also help in increasing the country's literacy rate.
15. It appears to me that there is no need to teach anyone for more than 3 hours a day till the secondary school. Therefore, the available education infrastructure can be used more effectively through the shift system. Three normal shifts can be run between 07:00-10:00, 11:00-14:00 and 15:00-18:00 hours. An hour gap in between for the children to leave the school and the next set to walk in. In the late nights - from 19:00-22:00, the facility can be used to provide education to old and unlettered. Facilities such as the building, furniture, library, computer centre, laboratories and play fields can be used very efficiently in this manner.
16. Further, individual teachers wanting to run their own curriculum can be entertained to use the nearby school facilities including the building, furniture, library, computer centre and laboratories. Like the 'Gurukula' method, a single teacher can lead a group of about 20 children from 1st to 12th standard. The students can write their 10th and 12th standard examination under the National Institute of Open Schooling. Nothing stops those who graduate through this system from joining the available colleges. Through the 'education credit', each student can pay his teacher. This helps the teacher earn a reasonable income and the student is also guaranteed quality infrastructure.
17. College education through correspondence system should be increased .In each town, "Tutorial" colleges called in can be set up by individuals who enroll their students in a correspondence course run by authorized universities. [This is applicable only to non-professional courses.] The day-to-day training is provided by these Tutorial colleges. The timings can be flexible, allowing for the students to also find a part-time work during the day.
18. Alternate education must be promoted from primary level.
19. There should be a School Teacher Eligibility Test(STET)in place for SCHOOL teachers to assess the quality of teachers which would take place every year. All teachers need to clear the STET in order to be eligible to teach in schools in India. It is mandatory for every teacher to sit for School Teacher Eligibility Test(STET) every year in order to continue teaching in India .Teachers who don't appear/fail to clear should not be allowed to continue his/her teaching unless and until he/she clears School Teacher Eligibility Test(STET) .Once a teacher fails to clear School Teacher Eligibility Test(STET) or does not appear for it will be banned to teach anywhere in India for 2 years as well as won’t be allowed to appear for STET .
The Teachers need to purchase the Application forms forms for School Teacher Eligibility Test(STET) at Rs 1000 (Rs 100 for rural school teachers).
All teachers who cleared/failed to clear/didn’t appear for STET have to teach at max 25 poor students free of cost who have registered under the National Institute of Open Schooling. The students as well as the teachers will be assessed continuously through Saatya System which will assess the progress of students after every month.
If at least 75% of his/her students performs satisfactorily throughout the year, the teacher doesn’t need to appear for School Teacher Eligibility Test(STET) that year and he/she shall be granted permission to teach in any school anywhere in the country for the next year and the process goes on like this but if more than 25% of his/her students fails to perform satisfactorily then he/she has to appear for School Teacher Eligibility Test(STET) next year and if this continues for more than 2 years then he/she will be banned for 3 years
The teachers who fail to clear STET and was banned for 2 years can qualify to sit for STET next year if more than 95% of his/her students performs satisfactorily throughout the year otherwise would have to wait till the ban is removed .
Instruction to DEO (District Education Officer) and Teachers
The DEO (District Education Officer) will set up new buildings with Facilities such as furniture, library, computer centre, laboratories and play fields etc. But till the new buildings are built the teachers must be allowed to access existing Facilities such as the building, furniture, library, and computer centre, laboratories and play fields on Saturdays and Sundays. The teachers must teach the poor students in their own houses.
Saatya System for Education
Before the Saatya System for Education is implemented students must be given adequate Computer Training so that he/she can give the exam online.
Questions, Exams and Rewards
1. The system will have a list of thousands of questions for each of the subjects from 1 to 12 standards. Questions will be multiple choices as well as subjective. The list will be published and will be in public domain.
2. Depending on the availability of resources, the District Education Officer will setup 1-4 exams per month for each student
3. Each exam will have 30-120 questions randomly chosen from the list for that quarter. Duration would be 1-3 minutes per question. Each exam will have 500-1000-more students
4. There would be monthly cash rewards for students/teachers based on the performance in the exams. These cash rewards will be the ONLY funding that banned teachers and students will get from the state. There will no salary for the teacher who cleared STET(School Teacher Eligibility Test).
5. The rewards can be as follows: Say Rs. 10 for each student and his teacher who gets (Average - 10%) and Rs. 20 each student and his teacher who gets more marks than (Average + 10%). Also, each parent gets additional 25% of what the student gets. In addition, for students after class V, additional 25% of what the student got goes to his teachers of past 2 years. The exact amount of the reward will depend on the money allocated to DEO that year.
Administration of Exams
6. The testing centers would be operated by District Education Officer.
7. The DEO will arrange for the buildings, desks, computer terminals, servers, printing reports, and allocating rewards etc. for the testing centers using the taxes he collects. DEO would appoint clerks, supervisor, assistants etc. to run test center. The citizens may expel an employee using Jury Trial.
8. DEO, or his clerks, using random choice, will instruct a student to go to a testing center near his school/home. For each month, the testing center can be different. Each student will get a different desk in test. This reduces the chances of cheating.
9. The server computer, upon the instruction of the supervisor, will randomly choose 60 questions from a list of 1000s public domain questions.
10. Each student will get the same 30-60 questions in different random order. Thus two students sitting next to each other will be getting questions in a different order just like competitive exams. The students giving the test offline are required to answer the questions in the machine – readable Optical Response Sheets. The DEO is asked to print out each copy from different sets and Xerox “N” no of copies of each set,
Where N = [(NUMBER OF STUDENTS IN THE HALL OPTING FOR ONLINE TEST) DIVIDED BY (TOTAL NUMBER OF SETS)]
Those students willing to give online test will be allowed to give their test online.
11. The DEO will pay the rewards for all the tests of that month before 10th of next month.
12. Testing cost will be below Rs 5 per test, not counting the land cost.
Dispensing Rewards for Exams
13. If over 95% students answered a question or if less than 5% students answered a question, the DEO will not count that question at all.
14. The DEO will decide number of tests to be conducted for each subject for a given class. For example, lets say that DEO decides that every month, there will be 2 Maths test, 1 Physics tests, 1 Chemistry tests, 1 Biology test, 2 Law tests etc.
15. The software will issue the points right after the exam.
Selection of teacher in Saatya System
16. In the system I described, other than the teachers who cleared/failed to clear/did not appear for STET (School Teacher Eligibility Test) any person can register himself as a teacher.
17. The parent of the child will decide which teacher’s class his child will attend. The parents can change the teacher any month.
SEE CHART FROM :
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Computer along with Language subjects such as English,2 Modern Indian Languages, should be made compulsory till class XII.
Basic Science ( physics,chemistry,maths,biology) should be made compulsory till class X.
Student's Choice Subject should also be introduced.Reaction of students
Introduce major-minor concept in secondary school education and let students choose their own subjects .But before introducing major-minor concept ,basic education must be imparted to the students.
Basic Science will have four papers:
BSPaper 2:Basic Maths
BSPaper 3:Basic Chemistry
BSPaper 4:Basic Biology
Major Science will be divided into four parts:
1.Physical Science(Physics and Statistics ,Math)
2. Biological Science (Biology, Chemistry)
3.Chemical Science(Chemistry, Math)
4. Mathmetical Science (Math and Statistics, Physics)
All Science Subjects will have 30% theory,40% practical,15% innovation and creativity,15% on projects.
Non Science Major would be divided into five parts:
1.Modern History (India & World )
2.Early History(BC ERA)
3.Geography (India & World)
All Non -Science Subjects will have 60% theory,40% projects.
Science Minor: Basic Science
Non Science Minor: History of Science, Civics and Geography
Additional subjects Lists:
18.Technical Drawing Applications
Communication Skills to be tested through literature and language :Speaking Skills, Listening Skills, Writing Skills
Examination at the end of Class X is optional but students to be assessed through continuous internal assessment (CIA)
Subjects for the ADVANCED BS LEVEL(Class 8 to 10)
1. Basic Science (100*4) ----------------------------SCALED DOWN TO 100 MARKS
2. Mathematics--------------------------------------------------------------- 100 MARKS
3. Computer Science (50% Written,50% Practical) ------------------- 100 MARKS
4.Literature and Language ------------------------------------------------ 100 MARKS
(English,2 Modern Indian
5. Major subjects ------------------------------------------------------------ 200 MARKS
6. Student’s Choice of Subject ------------------------------------------- -200 MARKS
GROUP III BEST OF TWO) ---------------------------------------------- 200 MARKS
(Optional) (AT LEAST 2 SUBJECTS HAS TO BE CHOSEN)
1. Minor Subjects
2. Additional Subject
3. Environmental Education
4. Alternative Education
CREDIT SUBJECTS: Co-Curricular, Sports
Net percentage = (Group I percentage + Twice Group II percentage + Best of 2 from Group III)/10
Secondary examination would be a (1+1+1) year course and a student would be allowed to change his/her stream after the end of each part of the 3year course .A minimum of pass marks/grade along with minimum credit in credit subjects to be obtained for PCA to be awarded.
Key Challenges for the Indian Education System
25% of the Indian population is illiterate.
Only 7% of the population that goes to school managed to graduate and only 15% of those who enrol manage to make it to high school and achieve a place in the higher education system.
A few reasons why education in India is given less importance in some areas are as follows:
• 80% of schools are managed by the government. Private schools are expensive and out of reach of the poor.
• More hands to earn remains the mentality amongst many families and therefore little kids are set out to fend for the family over going to school to garner an adequate education, in the most literal sense of the word.
• Infrastructure facilities at schools across rural areas and in slums dispense very poor quality of education.
• The teachers are not well qualified and therefore not well paid and therefore are not willing to work hard enough. This has been a classical Catch-22 problem that the government has been trying hard to fight against.
Why is India still a developing country and what is stopping it from being a developed country? This particular question strikes me every time when I read something about India’s education system. I see India’s education system as a stumbling block towards its objectives of achieving inclusive growth.
Let me inform you about certain startling facts. India is going to experience a paradox of nearly 90 million people joining the workforce but most of them will lack requiste skills and the mindset for productive employment according to a report in DNA. India has about 550 million people under the age of 25 years out of which only 11% are enrolled in tertiary institutions compared to the world average of 23%.
I wouldn’t be laying too much emphasis on the drawbacks of India’s public education system because it has been an issue well debated over in the past and the main flaws have already been pointed out before. I will be focussing on how the education system’s failure is leading to another social issue of income inequality and hence, suggest certain policies to improve India’s education system and reduce inequality.
The really critical aspect of Indian public education system is its low quality. The actual quantity of schooling that children experience and the quality of teaching they receive are extremely insufficient in government schools. A common feature in all government schools is the poor quality of education, with weak infrastructure and inadequate pedagogic attention.
What the government is not realising right now is that education which is a source of human capital can create wide income inequalities. It will be surprising to see how income inequalities are created within the same group of educated people.Let me illustrate this with the help of an example:
Let us take P be an individual who has had no primary or higher education. His human capital is zero and hence it bears no returns. Let Q be an individual who completed his MBA from S.P Jain college and let R be an individual who completed his MBA from IIM Ahmadabad. The average rate of return for an MBA student is 7.5% (hypothetical). Q gets a rate of return of 5% and R gets a rate of return of 10% due to the difference in the reputation and quality of the management school. Let the income of P, Q and R be 1.In a period of 10 years, P will be having the same income as he does not possess human capital. For the same time period Q will earn an income of (1+0.05)^10=1.63 and R will earn an income of (1+0.10)^10=2.59. Now lets see what happens when the rate of return on human capital doubles. Earnings of P will not change since he does not have any human capital. Now Q is going to earn (1+0.10)^10=1.63 and R is going to earn (1+0.20)^10=6.19. Flabbergasting! As soon as return on human capital increases proportionately income inequality increases. With return on human capital doubling, Q’S income increases by 59% and R’s income increases by 139%.
The above example just shows the effect of the quality of human capital n income inequality. So if the government does not improve education system particularly in rural areas the rich will become richer and the poor will get poorer.
Hence, it is imperative for the government to correct the blemishes in India’s education system which will also be a step towards reducing income inequality.
Certain policy measures need to be taken by the government. The basic thrust of government education spending today must surely be to ensure that all children have access to government schools and to raise the quality of education in those schools. One of the ways in which the problem of poor quality of education can be tackled is through common schooling. This essentially means sharing of resources between private and public schools. Shift system is one of the ways through which common schooling can be achieved. The private school can use the resources during the first half of the day and the government school can use it during the second half. It is important to remember that the quality of education is directly linked to the resources available and it is important for the government to improve resource allocation to bring about qualitative changes in the field of education. Common schooling is one of the ways in which government can use limited resources in an efficient way and thus improve resource allocation.
Another reason for poor quality of education is the poor quality of teachers in government schools .Government schools are unable to attract good quality teachers due to inadequate teaching facilities and low salaries. The government currently spends only 3% of its GDP on education which is inadequate and insufficient. To improve the quality of education , the government needs to spend more money from its coffers on education.
Most economists feel that the only panacea to the ills of the public schooling system is the voucher scheme. Under the voucher system, parents are allowed to choose a school for their children and they get full or partial reimbursement for the expenses from the government. But however, the voucher system will further aggravate the problem of poor quality of education in government schools. Such a system will shift resources from government schools to private schools. This will worsen the situation of government schools which are already under-funded. Moreover, if the same amount given as vouchers can be used to build infrastructure in schools then the government can realize economies of scale. For example- The centre for civil society is providing vouchers worth Rs 4000 per annum to 308 girls. This means that the total amount of money given as vouchers is Rs 1232000. If the same amount can be used to construct a school and employ high quality teachers who are paid well then a larger section of the society will enjoy the benefit of education. A school can definitely accommodate a minimum of 1000 students.
I hope government takes certain appropriate policy measures to improve the education system otherwise inequalities are going to be widespread and India’s basic capabilities will remain stunted. Let us strengthen the case for a stronger education system.