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PostPosted: Wed Nov 17, 2010 12:30 pm 
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Manufacturing in India-Past


T he ear lies t evidence of manufactur ing activities in I ndian subcontinent
is found in the remains of the Harappan civilization (4000-3000 BC).
Accurate weights and measures wer e in use. Kilns for smelting copper
ingots and cas ting tools wer e in exis tence. Metal tools included circular
saws, pierced needles and bronze dr ills with twis ted grooves .
T echnologies for lifting, loading and transpor tation of cons truction
mater ials , building cons truction ramps , scaffolding, and related tools
were used for creating monumental architecture. Por ts such as Lothal
in Gujarat were developed as expor t centers of ear ly manufactured
products from smelted copper and bronze.
Kautilya's Ar thashas tr a wr itten around 300 BC, mentions the proces ses
for metal extraction and alloying. Later Sanskr it texts talk about
as ses s ing and achieving metal pur ity. T he Rasvatnakar wr itten by
Nagar juna in 50 BC mentions the dis tillation of Z inc in Z awar ,
42
Rajas than, and excavations by the M.S . Univer s ity of Vadodara ver ify
the ex is tence of kilns used in the dis tillation of the metal.
T he trade was well organized and super vised by the local heads of the
city. T here were numerous guilds like carpenter s, smiths, leather
wor ker s , painters etc, under the leader ship of a pres ident. T here is
enough evidence to show the corporate commercial activity and
par tner ships in trade. T here was very little government control of
bus ines s . T he indus tr ial center s were connected by good roads , which
greatly facilitated traffic. Alexander's records provide accurate
information about a road that ran from Penkelaotis (Pushkalavati) near
the modern Attock and pas sed through T akshila to Patalipura (Patna)
after cros s ing the r iver Bias . Another road joined Pushkalavathi and
I ndrapras tha (Delhi) and after connecting Uj jayini (Uj jain) descended
down the Vindhya range, went into the Deccan through Pratis thana
after cros s ing the Narmada and the T apti r iver s .
Greek literature indicates that I ndian expor ts included a var iety of
spices , aromatics , quality textiles (mus lins and cottons ), ivory, high
quality iron and gems , which were in high demand. I n return, Rome
supplied cut-gems , coral, wine, per fumes , papyrus , copper , tin and
lead ingots to I ndia. T he trade balance was however , in I ndia's favor ,
and the net payment was over fifty million ses terces per year in the
form of gold or s ilver coinage, according to Pliny.
2.3.2 Medieval I ndia
T here were several scholar - ruler s who actively suppor ted science and
technology through grants from royal treasury. An example is Raj a
Bhoja (1018-60) of Dhar -Malwa, well educated in sciences and ar ts ,
and a great engineer . He was the architect of Bhoj sagar , one of the
larges t ar tificial ir r igation lakes of medieval I ndia, s tar ted a univer s ity
2.3.2 Medieval I ndia
T here were several scholar - ruler s who actively suppor ted science and
technology through grants from royal treasury. An example is Raj a
Bhoja (1018-60) of Dhar -Malwa, well educated in sciences and ar ts ,
and a great engineer . He was the architect of Bhoj sagar , one of the
larges t ar tificial ir r igation lakes of medieval I ndia, s tar ted a univer s ity.

http://www.me.iitb.ac.in/~bravi/lab/mfg ... India2.pdf

http://www.me.iitb.ac.in/~bravi/lab/mfgIndia/index.html


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PostPosted: Fri Nov 19, 2010 11:32 am 
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Village Assemblies in Ancient India

http://lokrajandolan.org/ancientindia.html

India has a long history of “governments by discussion,” in which groups of people having common interests made decisions on matters that affected their lives through debate, consultation, and voting. During Buddha’s times, though the rulers were not elected and the king’s son would succeed his father, the day-to-day decisions of governance were taken in village assemblies. Decisions of village assemblies were respected by the king.

Siddharth Gautam (later to be Buddha) was the son of the king of Kapilavastu, home to the Sakyas. Though the king was the head of the government, the affairs of the state were deliberated upon and decided at a democratic institution called the Sangh. Every Sakya youth above the age of twenty had to be initiated into the Sangh. Siddharth, too, became a member of the Sangh when he came of age and started participating in its proceedings.

When he was twenty-eight years old, there was a major clash between the Sakyas and the neighbouring Koliyas on the issue of sharing the waters of the river Rohini, which separated their two states. The Senapati of the Sakyas convened a session of the Sangh to consider the question of declaring war on the Koliyas. Siddharth, not surprisingly, opposed the war and proposed a motion to settle the dispute through peaceful means. The motion was not just spoken against; it was defeated by an overwhelming majority when it was voted on. The public voted for the alternative resolution of going to war with the Koliyas.

The Sangh followed this action up with an even more remarkable act of democratic power. The Senapati proposed a motion to proclaim an order calling to arms, for the war against the Koliyas, every Sakya between the age of 20 and 50. The motion was passed by the Sangh, with Siddharth and his supporters dissenting. Siddharth refused to accept the proclamation, which was construed by the Sangh as a breach of his oath (taken while being admitted to the Sangh), to safeguard the best interests of the Sangh with his mind, body and money. As punishment for the dereliction of his duty as a Sangh member, Siddharth was, eventually, sentenced to exile from Kapilavastu.

There may be disagreement over the logic of the Sangh’s decisions, but there can be little doubt over the strength of the democratic institutions of Kapilavastu, as exemplified in the story. The prince had little say and the collective will of the people prevailed.

Buddha's commitment to republicanism (or at least the ideal republican virtues) was a strong one, if we are to believe the Maha-parinibbana-suttanta, among the oldest of Buddhist texts. This is illustrated by a story. Ajatasastru, the King of Maghada, wishes to destroy the Vajjian confederacy (the Licchavis) and sends a minister, Vassakara the Brahman, to the Buddha to ask his advice. Will his attack be a success? Rather than answer directly, the Buddha speaks to Ananda, his closest disciples:
"Have you heard, Ananda, that the Vajjians hold full and frequent public assemblies?"
"Lord, so I have heard," replied he.
"So long, Ananda," rejoined the Blessed One, "as the Vajjians hold these full and frequent public assemblies; so long may they be expected not to decline, but to prosper...”

The Buddha saw the virtues necessary for a righteous and prosperous community, whether secular or monastic, as being much the same. Foremost among those virtues was the holding of “full and frequent assemblies.”
In this, the Buddha spoke not only for himself, and not only out of his personal view of justice and virtue. He based himself on what may be called the democratic tradition in ancient Indian politics -- democratic in that it argued for a wide rather than narrow distribution of political rights, and government by discussion rather than by command and submission.

Another example, perhaps more complete in description, of sophisticated local-level democracy in Indian history, is recorded on the walls of the Sundaravarada temple of Uttiramerur, Kanchipuram district. The inscriptions document a written constitution that dealt with elections to a village assembly around 750 AD, qualifications required of contesting candidates, circumstances under which a candidate would be disqualified, mode of election, tenure of the elected candidates and the right of the public to recall the elected members when they failed to discharge their duties properly, etc.

The village assembly had administrative and judicial functions, and was empowered to impose and collect fines from both common criminals and errant village administrators. Elected members of the assembly were also effectively policed by a larger assembly comprising village residents as well as the serving elected members of the village assembly.

Records detail the regulations and acts passed by the village assembly with respect to specific public services, such as the testing of gold quality, institutes of higher learning, and village tank maintenance. Each public service was rendered effectively by delegating the tasks to committees comprising members elected from various communities, to ensure sufficient expertise and impartiality within the committee.

One of the earliest instances of civilizations with democracy was found in ancient India, even during the times of the Rigveda, probably the earliest Indo-European literature and one of the most sacred books of the Hindus. The village in India was looked upon as the basic unit of administration in earliest Vedic age. The states mentioned are mostly monarchies, but with two democratic institutions called the Sabha and the Samiti. The Sabha (Assembly in Sanskrit) is widely interpreted to be the assembly of the elect or the important chieftains of the tribe, while the Samiti seems to be the gathering of all the men of the tribe, convened only for very special occasions. The Sabha and the Samiti kept check on the powers of the king, and were given a semi-divine status in the Rigveda as the "daughters of the Hindu deity Prajapati".

The later epic Ramayana seems to mention a Samiti summoned by King Dasharatha of Ayodhya for ratification of his son Prince Ramachandra as the successor (Book II, Canto II:80). Later, there were even many republics in ancient India, which were established sometime before the 6th century BC, and prior to the birth of Gautama Buddha. These republics were known as Maha Janapadas, and among these states, Vaishali (in what is now Bihar, India) was the world's first republic.

The tiny Indian village republics continued to flourish during the Hindu, Muslim and Peshwa governments till the advent of the East India Company. They survived the wreck of dynasties and downfall of empires. ‘The independent development of local government provided like the shell of the tortoise, a haven of peace where the national culture could draw in for its own safety when political storms burst over the land.’ The Kings received only state revenues from the village commonwealths and generally did not interfere with their local government. As Sir Charles Trevellyn remarks, ‘one foreign conqueror after another has swept over India, but the village municipalities have stuck to the soil like their own kusha grass.’ In his famous minute of 1830, Sir Charles Metcalfe, the then acting governor-general of India wrote:

"The village communities are little republics, having nearly everything they can want within themselves, and almost independent of any foreign relations. They seem to last where nothing else lasts. Dynasty after dynasty tumbles down; revolution succeeds revolution….but the village community remains the same. . . This union of the village communities, each one forming a separate little state in itself, has, I conceive, contributed more than any other cause to the preservation of the peoples of India, through all the revolutions and changes which they have suffered. It is in a high degree conducive to their happiness, and to the enjoyment of a great portion of freedom and independence. I wish, therefore, that the village constitutions may never be disturbed and I dread everything that has a tendency to break them up."

But fate willed it otherwise. The inordinate and unscrupulous greed of the East India Company caused gradual disintegration of these gram panchayats. The centralisation of all executive and judicial powers in the hands of the British bureaucrats also deprived the village functionaries of their age-old powers and influence.

As Dr Annie Besant observed, “The officials keep the old names, but the old panchayat was elected by the householders of the village and was responsible to them. Now the officers are responsible to government officials and their interest lies in pleasing them, not in satisfying the electors, as of old.”

Unfortunately, we continued with the same system after independence, which was put in place by the British.


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PostPosted: Tue Nov 23, 2010 8:01 am 
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अलाक्ष्मीनाशन -दरिद्रता नाशन

अलक्ष्मीघ्नम्‌ सूक्त
Social Responsibility

ऋग वेद 10.155 दारिदृय नाशन विषय

presented by Er. Subodh Kumar

Alakshminashan Sookt
Social awareness सामाजिक चेतना

Rig Ved 10.155 Sookt is Alakshmi Nashan Sookt.

It explains that personal Greed, of being blind to human suffering in
Society and not sharing one’s blessings with Society is the root cause for
disparity, poverty and suffering in society. Such societies are self
destructive- not sustainable. Economic system based on Cow is the only
remedy. It reduces Food Miles to ensure most universally available healthy
unadulterated organic food and simple life style for every body.

( Lest an impression is created that by promoting this rural culture, we are
not taking in to account the developed Urban society, It is pointed out that
the Vedic strategies take very good account of urban and developed city life
and strategies on that subject also follow very clearly)

Social responsibility सामाजिक दायित्व

1.अरायि काणे विकटे गिरिं गच्छ सदान्वे !

शिरिम्बिठस्य सत्वभि स्तोभिष्ट्वा चातयामसि !! ऋ10.155.1

Banish the attitudes to be miser and selfish, of not being disposed to give
money in charity, and not sharing their bounties with others. Being blind to
suffering & deprivation brings misery upon society. The resulting deluge
of famines and social misery drowns every one

Charity & Simple Living दान और सात्विक जीवन

2. चत्तो इतश्चत्तामुतः सर्वा भ्रूणन्यारूपी !

अराय्यं ब्रह्मणस्पते तीक्ष्णशृङ्गोदृषन्नहि !! ऋ10.155.2

The life style of not sharing with others around us is destroyer of all
creative activities before their inception. Strong social leadership should
work to destroy such insensitive tendencies

Consumerist Society भोगवादी स्वार्थी समाज

3. अदो यद्दारु प्लवते सिन्धो पारे अपूरुषम्‌ !

तदा रभस्व दुर्हणो तेन गच्छ परस्तरम्‌ !! ऋ10.155.3

Such unguided people are like an aimlessly floating piece of wood in the
river of the society.

It becomes the duty of elders in society to provide guidance to such
people.( to motivate them by setting an example in public welfare)

Social Discontent सामाजिक असंतोष

4. यद्ध प्राचीर्जगन्तोरो मण्डूरधणिकीः!

हता इन्द्रस्य शत्रवः सर्वे बुब्दुदयाशवः!!ऋ 10.155.4

When such abominable situations, potentially violent, forces which cause
poverty by selfishness of some in society get to be known, they require
to be crushed very strongly by positive social forces.

Cow based Decentralized Economy- गो आधारित अर्थ व्यवस्था

5.परीमे गामनेषत प्र्यग्निमहृषत !

देवेष्वक्रत श्रवः क इमाँ आ दधर्षति !! ऋ 10.155.5

When society takes steps to rehabilitate cows in local households and
enables people to grow their own agriculture produce, no body can stop
public prosperity.

भवदीय ,

सुबोध कुमार

Subodh Kumar,
C-61 Ramprasth,
Ghaziabad-201011
Mobile-9810612898
http://subodh-cowsinindia.blogspot.com
http://www.scribd.com/subodh1934


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