Waste Water management

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Waste Water management

Post by kmoksha » Tue Dec 07, 2010 12:35 am

Community involvement makes waste water management a success story in a Maharashtra village

http://www.indiasanitationportal.org/si ... eStudy.doc

Author: Dr SV Mapuskar

A large number of deaths in Indian villages occur due to diseases caused by poor sanitary conditions. The Government of Maharashtra, in tandem with the Government of India (GoI), has taken up intensive activities to improve the sanitation situation in villages in the state. These activities are based on some key learning experiences from earlier programmes: that providing sanitation facilities is not enough and communication activities aimed at changed attitudes and behaviour, and the involvement of the community, are crucial elements for the success of a holistic programme to achieve a clean village environment.

Dhamner village in Satara district of Maharashtra is an example of a success story of community involvement. Located on the banks of river Krishna, Dhamner has an adequate water supply year round. The village gets piped water supply at the rate of nearly 65 litres per capita per day amounting to about 1,50,000 litres. Roughly 1,20,000 litres of waste water is generated in the village each day. Earlier, this large quantity of waste water flowed freely along the streets and lanes accumulating in cesspools. Mosquitos and flies bred freely. The filthy and unhealthy environment in the village led to disease and an increase in morbidity. In the year 2000, residents of Dhamner came together under a dynamic leadership and decided to undertake measures to manage individual and community waste water with the goal of a cleaner and healthier village.

It must be mentioned here that Dhamner had already been exposed to information, education and communication (IEC) activities of Maharashtra government programmes like the Sant Gadge Baba Swachhata Abhiyan which focused on the involvement of the community. Government functionaries acted as facilitators while villagers were encouraged to decide and set up sanitation facilities at their own expense. The programmes were supported financially and in other ways through the government’s Total Sanitation Campaign programme. Dhamner residents were thus motivated for overall development which has resulted in total sanitation coverage of the village as well as an efficient and low-cost system of waste management.

The village has a population of 2,657 spread over a main village and three hamlets. There are a total of 550 residential houses and a cattle population of 1000. The main village sits on a small hillock from where the water flows in four different directions. From the main village, the waste water earlier flowed directly into the Krishna river. In the hamlets, it accumulated at multiple places in small cesspools. The streets and lanes in the villages were slushy due to haphazardly flowing waste water.

At the Gram Sabha, villagers of Dhamner decided to take measures to hygienically and productively manage sullage. It was decided to construct partially-covered roadside drains and use RCC pipes where necessary. This system was established in the main village, where almost all houses have now been connected to a drainage system. It was made mandatory for each house to connect their domestic waste water to the community drain. A chamber was provided between the house and the main drain and a grid placed at each opening between the main drain and a household connection to stop materials like paper and plastics from entering the drainage system. Due to the natural slope of the grounds round the village, the drainage systems flow in four directions without need for pumping.

The sullage is collected at four low-lying points. At one point, an intercepting tank is in place to stabilize the sullage. At the three other points, tanks are under construction. The stabilized effluent has been utilized for developing gardens. The effluent from the first point is used to water a children’s park and playground. The effluent from the three other points is being used for developing horticultural gardens and orchards.

Individual connections to the drains are maintained by the families and the community drainage system by the Gram Panchayat. The pumping of the stabilized water at one point is managed by the Gram Panchayat. At other points, the flow is gravitational. For the last four years, the Gram Panchayat has not needed to spend any money for maintenance. The park and horticultural gardens are maintained by women’s self help groups and a youth club.

For the initial construction of the system, the total capital expenditure was Rs. 9,46,000. A part of this was raised from contributions and voluntary labour by the local people. A major share was provided from the Rajya Sabha member’s discretionary fund. In due course, the village Panchayat is expected to earn Rs. 1,00,000 per year from the sale of the produce of the orchards making waste water management a very viable and sustainable programme.

The success of village’s waste water treatment and reuse system has encouraged exposure visits from other villages in Maharashtra. With site-specific modifications, this project has a very good replicability and sustainability. In fact, waste water management in Dhamner is a commendable example of what can be achieved when there is community involvement, collective efforts and dynamic leadership with the government acting as facilitator. The technology used is low-cost, easily manageable and environment-friendly. In recognition of its achievements, Dhamner village Panchayat received the Nirmal Gram Puraskar, a national award for clean environment, in 2005.

Appa Patwardhan Safai & Paryavaran Tantraniketan
( Non Governmental Organization )

Contact Name: Dr.S. V. Mapuskar
Phone: 91-20-27691204
Village Dehu, Haveli Taluk
Pune 412109

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Re: Waste Water management

Post by kmoksha » Tue Dec 07, 2010 2:43 am

Rural upliftment through total sanitation


By Nitya Jacob

Pune, Maharashtra: Vishnu Gyanu Kshirsagar is a latter-day Sant Gadge Baba who goes around sweeping his village and cleaning drains. His mission after retiring as a police constable is to emulate the late Maharashtrian. The revered Baba started a revolution in the state by going from village to village, cleaning and preaching hygiene way before these things became part of the government and UN lexicon.

Kshirsagar emerges slowly from his mud and tin hut in Dhamner village, next to the Krishna River in Maharashtra’s Satara district. Eyes blurred by cataract, beard white and head bald, he folds his hands and says, “My vision is to clean as many villages here so that people make cleanliness a habit.”

Villagers in the Satara and neighbouring Pune districts have worked with their Panchayati Raj Institution (PRI) representatives to clean up their villages. This means total sanitation – toilets in each house so people do not use fields for defecation. Also garbage segregation, vermicomposting of organic waste, sanitary landfills for inorganic waste, drains to channel water, waste water treatment and reuse, wind turbines for power, biogas for cooking, and regular cleaning of the village.

Dhamner village headman Shahji Kshirsagar says, “The habit of total sanitation has become so ingrained here that we in the Panchayat do not need to do anything now. The villagers keep their village completely clean. They have even got over the mental block of using human waste-generated biogas for cooking.”

Dhamner with 488 families has transformed itself into a model in five years. There are 71 community toilets for the poor, and 325 households have their own toilets. The village has no dirty water flooding the streets – waste is collected in drains, and processed in settling tanks at four locations. Processed water is used for horticulture.

There are vermicompost sheds at different locations where solid organic waste is converted into manure. The village plans to install a 15 kW wind turbine to light up common areas, and serve the few households where grid power does not reach. The houses are painted pink, and the doors with the Indian flag.

One community toilet, next to the village temple on the riverbank, has a biogas plant that meets the cooking needs of around eight nearby houses. They pay the Panchayat Rs 100 per month – the money covers the cost of maintaining the other community toilets. Dhamner has emerged as a model hygienic village. But all this took a while to achieve.

In 2001, the village was divided along family and caste lines. Many local leaders were in jail following inter-caste violence. Shahji, a burly man in his late 30s, decided enough was enough.

“I started a movement to unify the village and picked on hygiene,” he recounted. “The first thing was to educate villagers on hygiene. The second was to stop them from defecating in the open by building community latrines. Step by step we introduced other measures till we achieved what you see here today.”

Ashok Desai, chairman of the village cleanliness campaign, added, “We began education through schools and conducted a door-to-door campaign on the need for hygiene and its benefits.”

This culminated in Dhamner bagging both the Nirmal Gram Puruskar (NGP) from the President of India, and at the state-level it won a cash award under the Sant Gadge Baba Swachata Abhiyan (SGBSA) of Rs 2.5 million. SGBSA is a state-level sanitation campaign launched in 2000.

Dhamner is one of 115 villages in the Satara district to have got the award in 2006. 300 villages is the target for 2007. Shortly thereafter the district hopes to bag the zilla puruskar. 379 villages in the state won the NGP awards in 2005-2006.

This year, there are a whopping 2,959 applications from around the state, says Director, Water Supply and Sanitation, Sanjeev Kumar. But the state has a long way to go. “Just 3,000 of the 28,000 Gram Panchayats have been covered by the sanitation campaign.”

The story in Pune is much the same. Dehu village is an hour away. Dr S. V. Mapuskar is a doctor there who has dedicated his life to health and hygiene.

“I came here in 1960 as a doctor and stayed to improve the villagers’ hygiene,” he recounted. “When I began working here, I noticed water borne diseases dominated health problems. I hated to use the fields for defecation and decided to build some toilets. But they collapsed in the rains.”

The wiry doctor studied other toilet designs, finally picking an indigenous one. Then came the harder task of convincing villagers of the need. He demonstrated the link between worm infestation and open defecation. And followed up with an information blitzkrieg, using public meetings and posters.

It paid off. People started coming forward to make their own toilets - just 100 in the first year. By 1986, when the Government of India launched the Central Rural Sanitation Programme, Dr. Mapuskar and the Panchayat had already covered half the village without subsidy.

The village now has drains to channel wastewater into settling tanks, from where it is released into fields. Sewage is converted into vermicompost and distributed as manure. Many households with toilets have a Mapuskar-design biogas plant that supplies them cooking gas.

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